Karst types in Bulgaria
Dora Angelova - (32/1,2003)
The karst in Bulgaria occupies an area of 26 170 km2 or 22.7 % of the territory of the country. The karst water resources are estimated to be 2.3 billion m3 or 11.6 % of the total water resources of the country. The interest in karst in Bulgaria has become higher during the last years because there are a number of practical problems that have to be solved. Karst in Bulgaria is characterized by great diversity due to the complex combination of factors (geological, tectonic, geomorphologic, hydrological and hydrogeological, climatic, etc.) and to the geodynamic development of this part of Europe. This work presents a new zoning of karst in Bulgaria. The following types have been distinguished: plain karst (the Danubian Plain), marine and transformed marine karst into plain and plain-marine karst (Black Sea subaqual and subareal plain), plateau-like karst (the Fore Balkan) and mountainous karst. The karst wetlands and karst phenomena provoked by paleoearthquakes are separately outlined and sample models for the different karst types, genesis, dynamics, lithostructural control, relations, etc. are presented.