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Pattern of karst landscape of the Cracow Upland (South Poland)
Witold Stefan Alexandrowicz, Zofia Alexandrowicz - (32/1,2003)
The relief of the Polish Jura Chain developed since Paleogene under climatic conditions changing considerably. Their main components are a peneplain crowned by numerous monadnocks, generated as hard-rocks on Upper Jurassic massive limestones (bioherms, carbonate buildups) surrounded by less resistant platy and bedded limestones of the same age. After the Miocene tectonic phase and following karstification deep valleys dissected the top surface of the plateau and cave levels connected with rocky terraces had been formed. During the Pleistocene the periglacial climate accelerated the congelifraction and relaxation of monadnocks. The modification of landforms and the environment in last ten thousand years, indicated by assemblages of molluscs was controlled by both climatic and anthopogenic factors. The geo- and biodiversity closely related to one another are still under the nature protection.
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