The origine and evolution of coastal and submarine springs in Bakar Bay
Čedomir Benac, Josip Rubinić, Nevenka O�anić - (32/1,2003)
The paper presents coastal and submarine springs in Bakar Bay. The northeastern coast of Bakar Bay is abound in springs, since there is the lowest placed contact between large karst aquifer and flysch lithogenetic complex which forms hydrogeological barrier. Studied area is situated between rno and ®minjca locations, where water flows out in series of concentrated coastal and submarine springs as well as on the places of a diffuse outflow. A rapid raise of sea-level from the end of the Pleistocene changed the hydrogeological conditions so that coastal springs were submerged and new ones, at higher levels appeared. Some of submerged springs continued to throw out water, that is, they started to function as submarine springs (vrulja) due to a strong inflow from the background and high pressures. Some of them were not registered, although according to water balance analyses of wider area, widespread evidences of groundwater outflow could be expected. Their position reflects geological fabric of the area. Groundwaters have intensive flowing gradient. Their flowing out in hydraulically unstable zone have facilitated mixing of sea- water and fresh-water and as a result spring-water is usually brackish.