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Smoganica - a cave developed in upper Cretaceous breccia
Martin Knez, Tadej Slabe, Stanka Šebela - (34/2,2005)
On the Banjšice plateau (NW Slovenia) the longest spring cave is 492 m long Smoganica. The cave (505 m above sea level) is situated on the SW slope of Čukla (770 m) E from the Soča river (153 m above the sea level). Smoganica is developed in limestone breccia, which is 10 m thick and belongs to the Upper Cretaceous flysch rocks. On the territory around the cave, the green marls are included in breccias or breccias are included into the green marls. Clasts in coarse-grained breccia, in which the cave is located, vary from some cm to several dm in diameter. Clasts are mostly deriving from younger rudist limestones, Lower and Upper Cretaceous and Jurassic micritic and oolitic limestones. Smoganica is situated about 2 km south from Idrija fault and about 200 m north from Kobarid fault. There are two principal fissure orientations in the cave, N30-45_E and N120-135_E. Smoganica was formed from the system of smaller passages that have been developed inside the breccia in 3D. The cave was formed in phreatic conditions, later it was completely filled with cave sediments. In the next stage the above-sediment rock forms were developed. Cave sediments were later removed from the cave. Today the active water stream is cutting rock forms in the bottom of the cave passages. Higher water quantities are forming scallops and potholes and lower quantities floor channels. Smoganica can be described as polygenetic cave because the percolating water is reshaping the passages.
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