Cave and Karst evolution in the Alps and their relation to paleoclimate and paleotopography
Philippe Audra, Alfredo Bini, Franci Gabrovšek, Philipp Häuselmann, Fabien Hobléa, Pierre-Yves Jeannin, Jurij Kunaver, Michel Monbaron, France Šušteršič, Paola Tognini, Hubert Trimmel & Andres Wildberger - (36/1,2007)
Progress in the understanding of cave genesis processes, as well as the intensive research carried out in the Alps during the last decades, permit to summarize the latest knowledge about Alpine caves. The phreatic parts of cave systems develop close to the karst water table, which depends on the spring position, which in turn is generally related to the valley bottom. Thus, caves are directly linked with the geomorphic evolution of the surface and reflect valley deepening. The sediments deposited in the caves help to reconstruct the morphologic succession and the paleoclimatic evolution. Moreover, they are the only means to date the caves and thus the landscape evolution. Caves appear as soon as there is an emersion of limestone from the sea and a water table gradient. Mesozoic and early tertiary paleokarsts within the alpine range prove of these ancient emersions. Hydrothermal karst seems to be more widespread than previously presumed. This is mostly due to the fact that usually, hydrothermal caves are later reused (and reshaped) by meteoric waters.