KARST SURFACE FEATURES OF THE HARD LAMINATED CRUST (CALICHE HARDPAN) IN THE MERSIN AREA,
Mushin EREN & Zubeyde HATİPOGLU-BAGCI - (39/1,2010)
The study area is located in the Mersin province where caliches
are widespread and occur in a variety of forms such as
powdery, nodular, tubular, fracture-infill, laminar crust, hard
laminated crust (caliche hardpan), pisolithic crust. The hard
laminated crust shows distinctive karst surface features of karren.
These include kamenitza, rillenkarren, solution pit and solution
enlarged fracture (kluftkarren). First two karst features
are common and closely associated with dome- and ridge-like
morphologies termed caliche tepees or pseudo-anticlines. Kamenitzas
or solution basins are dish-shaped depressions with
flat bottom and sharp and overhanging sides which resulted
from ponding water mostly at the top of caliche tepees. Rillenkarren
are solutional flutes separated by sharp angular ridges,
with length of less than 15 cm. They are well developed on the
inclined surfaces of surface irregularities at or near the top
of caliche tepees and form from sheet flow. Solution pits are
narrow, cylindrical shaped karst troughs formed by stemflow
drainage beneath trees. The kluftkarrens are products of dissolution
by channelised surface water flowing along a fracture.
The coexistence of caliche and karst features is important to indicate
a climatic change from semiarid to humid conditions.